The Ape-Men I – Who Were The Ape-Men?

Nebraska ManNeanderthal ManRamapithecusThe Australopithecines

1We have all seen drawings depicting ape-men. Usually the highly imaginative artist depicts the whole family. They have bulging jaws, receding foreheads, hairy bodies and they return from hunting with sticks in their hands. Their back is curved as one might expect from a half-ape half-man creature.This is being taught in school, without mentioning those less known parts of the story that might refute the evolutionary theory, the university-professor-from-bacteria-in-billions-of-years theory. What are these drawings based on? Let’s look more closely at some famous “ape-men”.

Nebraska Man (Hesperopithecus Haroldcookii)

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Nebraska man. Sketch by Amedee Forestier, Illustrated London News, 1922. Nebraska man’s tooth. Drawing published in Illustrated London News on June 24, 1922.

In 1922 Harold Cook found an unusual molar tooth in Nebraska. Professor Henry Fairfield Osborn, who had been working at that time for the Natural History Museum in New York, firmly declared that it must have belonged to a half ape-half man creature. Many scientists and specialists agreed. And America became the proud owner of a totally American ape-man.

Henry Osborn and his colleagues could not decide whether to call it an ape-like man or rather a man-like ape. In spite of this, they went on reconstructing a jaw, then a skull, and finally a complete skeleton. Afterwards they added facial features, muscles and presented this man-like fabrication in the Illustrated London News.

Nebraska man lasted 5 years. After subsequent discoveries in 1927, it became obvious that the unusual tooth from which a whole man had been built, was not from an ape-man but from an extinct wild pig.

In 1927, Science magazine published a one and a half page article by Gregory W.K., where he withdrew his statement that the Nebraska man was a hominid, and acknowledged that he was based on a pig’s tooth.

Nanderthal Man (Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis)

In 1856, some human remains were discovered in a cave in the Neander Valley of Germany near Düsseldorf. A skeleton found in the same place in 1908 was displayed in museum exhibitions and textbook illustrations during the following decades as the predecessor of modern man who lived some 40-50 thousand years ago. These illustrations portrayed the Neanderthal Man with a bestial face, thick neck, humped back and bent knees.

In 1957 these remains were closely examined with more sophisticated instruments, and scientists concluded that the skeleton most probably belonged to an elderly person suffering from acute bone disease, hence his humped back and skeletal malformation. It is possible that less vitamin D entered their body due to cave dwelling and further weakened their bone structure. We can infer from the rest of the human remains found in the Neander Valley, that arthritis was common in that specific tribe. Otherwise they walked upright, were intelligent, had developed artistic sense and ceremonial burial.

Examining their skull volume, it appeared they had a brain capacity of 1600 cm3. Apes have brain capacities in the 450-650 cm3 range, while modern men in the 1000-1500 cm3 range. Neanderthal men were true Homo Sapiens.

Ramapithecus

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Ramapithecus remains: some teeth and jaw fragments.
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This is how Ramapithecus was reconstructed  using extraordinary imagination.

In 1932 Louis Leakey and his collaborators found some teeth and a few other jaw fragments in South-West Kenya, which they assembled  in such a way as to resemble a human jaw. Apes’ jaws are U-shaped and men’s are parabolic. They assembled the pieces along a parabolic arch and claimed that this jaw belonged to one of man’s earliest ape-like ancestors. This is how Ramapithecus was born, said to be a transitional creature between the higher apes and man.

A full jaw was discovered in 1977 which belonged to a similar individual as the pieces found in 1932. The jaw was U-shaped, so it belonged to an ape. We cannot make assumptions about brain capacity or an upright walking position on jaw fragments alone. Ramapithecus also turned out to have no relation whatsoever with man.Roger Lewin, in his book Bones of Contention, on page 86 wrote:

The dethroning of Ramapithecus—from putative [supposed] first human in 1961 to extinct relative of the orangutan in 1982—is one of the most fascinating, and bitter, sagas in the search for human origins.

The Australopithecines

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Australopithecus skull.
The crest on the top of the skull is a feature of higher apes which is not present in the case of humans. The skull’s volume is barely larger than that of a chimpanzee.
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Reconstruction of Australopithecus boisei .

The general term Australopithecines refers to a wide variety of ape bones excavated in Africa. Anthropologists assert these are the remains of prehistoric men who lived between 1 and 5 million years ago.

The most famous among these findings is Lucy, and scientists consider it to be the oldest ape-man specimen. This 40% complete skeleton was discovered by Donald Johanson in Hadar, Ethiopia, in 1974. It was also labeled as one of the “missing links”. Since then, Lucy has been presented in numerous scientific publications and schools, as a prominent representative of prehistoric men.

Lucy was a mature female about 25 years old. Her hind leg bones and her pelvis show that she was able to stand on two legs for a slightly longer time than today’s apes, but it is certain she did not walk upright. She was about one meter high and she weighed around 28 kg. Her very long front arms and short legs show she probably walked on her knuckles, or to put it another way, she was an ape.

Other australopithecine bones have similar characteristics to those of the mostly tree-dwellling apes.

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The junction of the spinal cord and the skull is farther forward on humans then on apes. This is what points to the upright stance. The skull base of Australopithecines has similar characteristics to the skull base of apes.

Australopithecines belonged to an extinct ape species, one similar to the bonobo chimpanzees and orangutans, and had very few humanoid characteristics.
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By comparing Australopithecines, chimpanzee and human skulls we can see that Australopithecines were apes, not humans.

See below in the References section. Sir Solly Zuckerman’s opinion about the Australopithecines written in 1954. His scientific work and his renown exceeded his colleagues’. He was the Chief Scientific Advisor to Her Majesty’s Government, and in 1971 he was elevated to the Peerage as Lord Zuckerman.


We now know the truth about most of these ape-men. They were either apes or men. They were a mixture of the two only when somebody assembled together ape and human bones.

In his “APES” article in Scientific American, Vol.226, p.101, Robert B. Eckhardt from Penn. State University wrote:

…there would appear to be little evidence to suggest that several different hominoid species are represented among the Old World dryopithecine fossils… (Ramapithecus, Oreopithecus, Limnopithecus, Kenyapithecus). They themselves nevertheless seem to have been apes morphologically, ecologically, and behaviorally.

What is the explanation that schools still teach these (already known to be false) ape-men proofs, as basics of evolution and proven truths?


References

1.  Gregory W.K., Science, 1927, 66:579-81.: “Hesperopithecus apparently not an ape nor a man.”

2.  Adrienne L. Zihlman and Jerold M. Lowerstein, Natural History, August/September 1979, p.86:
“How did Ramapithecus… reconstructed from teeth and jaws—without a known pelvis, limb bones, or skull—sneak into this manward-marching procession ?”

3.  David R. Pilbeam, The Evolution of Man, 1970:
“Locomotion, like body size, cannot be inferred without some post-cranial bones. It would be unwise to speculate about Ramapithecus’ locomotion from a knowledge solely of its jaws and teeth !”

4.  R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution, 1990, p.84:
“Subsequent fossil finds proved Sarich right: Ramapithecus is no longer considered a candidate for human ancestor.”

5.  Lord Solly Zuckerman, “Definitely an ape”, Beyond the Ivory Tower, page 78:
“The australopithecine skull is in fact so overwhelmingly simian as opposed to human that the contrary proposition could be equated to an assertion that black is white.”


Links

Ancient Man
Evidence showing that humans did not evolve from apes or descend from anything else. From Creation-Evolution Encyclopedia.

Origin of man: Monkeying with Science…A New Look at Old Faces!, by Dr. David N. Menton.

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