|On this and the next few pages we will present the hydroplate theory of Dr. Walt Brown, Director of the Center for Scientific Creation, based on his book, In the Beginning: Compelling Evidence for Creation and the Flood, 6th Edition, 1995. The title of the chapter is The Hydroplate Theory — An Overview. The illustrations reproduced from this book are used with the permission of Dr. Walt Brown.|
Controversial Features of the EarthThere are many geological features on the earth that cannot be explained using evolutionary and “long age” theories. But these features appear to be consequences of a cataclysmic, worldwide flood, whose waters burst forth from under the earth’s crust. Walt Brown describes these features in detail. Here we will briefly mention them.
The Grand Canyon and Other Canyons
Just looking at a picture of the Grand Canyon, the question arises: how did it form? The standard explanation is that the Colorado River cut through the rock over millions of years. It is hardly believable that such a thin river could cut out such a huge canyon. And if it could, then why didn’t many of the world’s other larger and faster rivers form canyons?
Figure 1: The Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
In the 1950s, the greatest mountain range on the earth was discovered, called the Mid-Oceanic Ridge. It is 46,000 miles (73,600 km) long, it lies on the ocean floor and wraps around the earth, intersecting itself in a Y-shaped junction beneath the Indian Ocean. Unlike other mountains, it is composed of basalt. There are hundreds of long fracture zones running almost perpendicular to the ridge. The theory called plate tectonics is said to explain this ridge, but there are many little-known problems, which this theory cannot cope with (see In the Beginning, p. 75–78 for details).
Figure 2: Ocean Trenches and Seamounts in the Pacific Ocean.
These are long, narrow and very deep depressions on the ocean floor. According to plate tectonics, a trench forms when a plate “subducts”, or “dives down” into the mantle. What force could move a 30-mile-thick plate into the mantle? Worse yet, the friction at a depth of several miles would exceed the crushing strength of rock, so this movement should be impossible.
Seamounts and Tablemounts
Many submarine volcanoes, called seamounts, are scattered on the ocean floor, mostly in the Pacific Ocean. If plate tectonics is true, then when a plate subducts, the seamounts on it should be “scraped off”. Yet no such remains were found. Tablemounts are flat-topped seamounts, whose tops were leveled off by waves, when they tried to grow above the ocean surface. Yet their tops are 3,000–6,000 feet below today’s sea level. This means that either the sea level was once much lower, the ocean floor much higher, or both.
Earthquakes are forces of nature that are still not understood today, despite intensive research. Two precursors of earthquakes are the swelling of the ground and the sudden change of water depth in wells. According to plate tectonics, earthquakes happen when plates rub against each other, lock, then jerk loose. Then why do some quite powerful earthquakes happen far from plate boundaries? Also, for example the Californian San Andreas Fault proves that movement could not have been going on for millions of years.
Figure 3: Magnetic Anomalies.
Magnetic Variations on the Ocean Floor
The misinterpretation of magnetic variation found along the Mid-Oceanic Ridge led to the general acceptance of the plate tectonics theory. As we move over the ridge, the magnetic field’s intensity fluctuates. These fluctuations usually appear in bands parallel to the ridge. Someone misinterpreted the fluctuations to be “magnetic reversals”, and this was used as proof of plate tectonics. It was suggested that the earth’s magnetic field reversed from time to time, and these bands of solidified molten material rising at the ridge and moving away from it reflected the earth’s magnetic orientation at that time. Also, contrary to what this theory predicts, not all bands are parallel to the ridge, some are even perpendicular to it.Submarine Canyons
Canyons are found not only on dry land, but also on the ocean floor. There are many such submarine canyons, some of which are deeper and longer than the Grand Canyon. Many of these are extensions of rivers into the ocean, such as the Amazon Canyon, the Ganges Canyon and the Hudson Canyon. The currents measured in the submarine canyons are too slow to be able to cut through rock, and many times the water flows in the wrong direction. Then how did they form?
Coal and Oil Formations
Contrary to what one would predict, a large amount of coal and fossilized trees can be found in Antarctica. How could so much vegetation grow where the night lasts 6 months? Was the continent once at a higher latitude? Even plate tectonics says the South Pole was inside Antarctica ever since the coal formed. A possible solution to this problem is that vegetation floated there in a large flood.
Glaciers and the Ice Ages
The start and the end of ice ages present us with a paradox. If it has somehow started, how does an ice age end? If glaciers start growing, they reflect more of the sun’s light and heat away from the earth. This lowers the earth’s temperature and causes glaciers to grow even more. This cycle should continue until the whole earth is frozen. Conversely, if glaciers start melting, they reflect less heat, thereby warming the earth and melting themselves even more, until all glaciers vanish forever.
Perhaps one of the most interesting features listed here is the mystery of frozen mammoths. These are large, elephant-like mammals, whose frozen remains have been found in Alaska and Siberia. Some mammoths still had food in their mouth and stomach. The freezing must have been extremely rapid, otherwise the stomach’s food would have been destroyed by the animals’ residual heat and stomach acids. If the animal remained alive for a few minutes, the food should have disappeared from its mouth. And how could these animals have lived in such harsh weather?